a) discomfort in knee joint
b) morning stiffness
c) while going up and down the stairs knee start hurting/paining
d) crepitus ie grinding sound in knee.
II. Weight – more the weight on knees, earlier would the knee worn out.
III.Infection—infections of knees like TB, Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, psoriasis damage the knee at earlier age has cause arthritis.
IV. Trauma – fracture /Trauma to and around knee would cause soft tissue/meniscal tear/ligament injury,which would increase the wear and tear of the knee, and cause arthritis
X-rays can show detailed pictures of bones to help doctors determine if a patient has OA. At this stage, the X-ray will not show any damage, and the knee joints are still healthy. No signs of OA are present.
Stage 1 - minor During this stage, small lumps of bone (called osteophytes) may grow in the knee area. The cartilage may be slightly damaged. There is no apparent narrowing of the space between the bones to indicate the cartilage is breaking down.
At stage 1, people with OA are unlikely to feel any pain or experience any discomfort. Even an X-ray of the joint would appear normal at this stage.
Stage 2 - mild During this stage, the symptoms of OA begin to get more noticeable, and doctors can see some specific signs of wear.
X-rays and scans of the knee joints will clearly show more bone lump growth, and the cartilage will begin to slightly thin.
The space in between the bones will be normal, but the contacting bone surfaces and tissues are hardening. Hardening tissue makes the bone thicker and denser. In turn, this leads to the development of a thin layer of bone beneath the cartilage in the joints.
People with OA may begin to experience symptoms such as stiffness or joint pain. The area around the knee joint may start to feel particularly stiff and uncomfortable after sitting for a long time.
Though there may be some minor damage, the bones are not rubbing or scraping against each other. Synovial fluid is still present which helps to reduce friction and increase knee movement.
Stage 3 - moderate During this stage, the damage to the cartilage has progressed. The gap between the bones has narrowed, and cartilage loss can be seen on X-rays.
At stage 3, people with OA of the knee may begin to experience pain and discomfort while performing daily activities. Running, walking, kneeling, and bending may cause discomfort. People with OA of the knee may also start to experience joint inflammation.
As OA progresses, the cartilage continues to thin and break down. The bones react by becoming thicker. They start to grow outward and form lumps.
The tissue lining the joint becomes inflamed and may produce extra fluid that causes increased swelling. This is known commonly as "water on the knee" or medically as synovitis.
Stage 4 - severe This stage is the most advanced stage of OA. At this stage, the symptoms of OA are very visible. The joint space between the bones is further reduced, causing the cartilage to break down further.
This advanced breakdown stiffens the joint and leads to constant inflammation and less fluid around the joint. There is more friction in the joint and greater pain and discomfort when moving.
X-rays will show bone on bone, meaning that there is either very little cartilage left or it has completely worn away.
People with OA will likely develop more bone lumps and experience intense pain frequently while doing simple tasks such as walking. In severe cases, the bones may become deformed and angulated because of asymmetric loss of cartilage.
Stage 3 :-
a) Intraarticular visco supplements may help to slow down the process of damage.
b) arthroscopic lavage and debridement.
c)High tibial osteotomy.
d) Proximal femoral Osteotomy.
In addition to all these, the precautions and the exercises need to be continued
Stage 4:- Require Joint replacement Surgery is the only treatment for a healthy and painfree life
1) Reduce weight
2) Do regular exercises
3) Hot fomentation
4) Do cycling
5) Do swimming
1) Avoid squatting.
2) Avoid sitting on floor.
3) Avoid Indian style toilets.
4) Avoid climbing up and down the stairs.
5) Avoid treadmill/joggers.
Exercise 2 Straight-Leg Calf Stretch.
Exercise 3 Standing Hamstring Stretch.
Exercise 4 Body-Weight Squat with Knee Press-Out.
Exercise 5 Single-Leg Squat.
Exercise 6 Hip Raise with Knee Press-Out.
Exercise 7 Lateral Band Walks.
Exercise 8 Single-Leg Standing Dumbbell Calf Raise.
b) reduced hormone levels
c) Bone structure :- tall and slim people are more prone
d) Previous fracture:-previous fracture after trivial injury is a risk factor
Modifiable risk factors include:
a) eating disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa, or orthorexia
b) tobacco smoking
c) excessive alcohol intake
d) low levels or intake of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D, due to dietary factors, malabsorption problems, or the use of some medications
e) inactivity or immobility
a) slow or prevent the development of osteoporosis
b) maintain healthy bone mineral density and bone mass
c) prevent fractures
d) reduce pain
e) maximize the person's ability to continue with their daily life
This is done through preventive lifestyle measure and the use of supplements and some drugs.
a) Lumbar strain (acute, chronic): A lumbar strain is a stretch injury to the ligaments, tendons, and/or muscles of the low back
b) Nerve Irritation:-The nerves of the lumbar spine can be irritated by mechanical pressure (impingement) by bone or other tissues, or from disease, anywhere along their paths -- from their roots at the spinal cord to the skin surface
c) lumbar radiculopathy:- Lumbar radiculopathy is nerve irritation that is caused by damage to the discs between the vertebrae. Damage to the disc occurs because of degeneration ("wear and tear") of the outer ring of the disc, traumatic injury, or both.
d) bony encroachment :- Any condition that results in movement or growth of the vertebrae of the lumbar spine can limit the space (encroachment) for the adjacent spinal cord and nerves
e) conditions of the bone and joints. :- Bone and joint conditions that lead to low back pain include those existing from birth (congenital), those that result from wear and tear (degenerative) or injury, and those that are due to inflammation of the joints (arthritis)
a) athletic activity
b) heavy lifting
d) moving luggage
e) traumatic injury
f) kidney infection
a) numbness and/or tingling of the lower extremities,
b) incontinence of urine or stool,
c) inability to walk without worsening pain,
d) lower extremity weakness, atrophy (decreased in size) of the lower extremity muscles,
h) weight loss,
i) abdominal pains,
j) burning on urination,
l) joint pain, and
a) cold pack and heat applications,
b) topical analgesic balms,
c) avoiding reinjury,
d) eliminating heavy lifting, and
e) taking pain relievers.
Back pain is a common symptom that affects nearly everyone at some time in their life. Back pain affects men and women equally. Pain in the low back most commonly develops between the ages of 30 and 50, due both to the aging process and sedentary lifestyles
Surgery is not needed for most cases of low back pain. Treatment options include drugs to relieve pain (analgesics) and reduce inflammation, restoration of proper function and strength, and prevention of further injury.
Heat is used to increase blood flow, which helps promote pain relief after inflammation and swelling subside. Heat is also used to assist in warming muscles up prior to exercise, any physical activity, or physical therapy.
A sprain is an injury of the ligaments, the rubber band like tissues that connect bones together. When the ligaments are stretched past their normal range of motion, the result can include swelling and severe pain.
A sprain will heal with rest, but a fractured bone must be set to heal.